LYNN MARGULIS

Lynn Petra Alexander, mayormente conocida como Lynn Margulis, fue una bióloga y genitista estadounidense famosa mundialmente por su teoría endosimbiótica  y su colaboración con el biólogo R.V Schwartz  para la clasificación de las especies en los actuales  cinco reinos.

 

Lynn Margulis. Fuente: www.scientificamerican.com

Lynn Margulis nació en Chicago, en 1938, y se educó en el instituto público de Hyde Park, donde ya desde muy joven sobresalía como estudiante. A los 16 años ingresó en la Universidad de Chicago, finalizando su formación a una edad temprana. No obstante, su educación se prolongó más allá. En 1958 continuó con sus estudios en la Universidad de Wisconsin, lugar en el que cursó biología celular y genética. Su instrucción educativa, íntimamente ligada a la biología celular, se desvió en el interés hacia las bacterias, un objeto de estudio del que, por entonces, eran únicamente catalogados como patógenos u microorganismos perjudiciales. Sin embargo, Margulis decidió que era interesante y necesario enseñar al mundo la importancia de estos seres, por lo que retomó anteriores estudios y trabajos con el fin de obtener la información necesaria que usó en la formulación de sus futuras teorías.

SUS DOS MAYORES TEORÍAS FORMULADAS FUERON LA TEORÍA DE LA ENDOSIMBIOSIS SERIADA Y LA TEORÍA DE LA SIMBIOGÉNESIS.

La primera de ellas, la teoría de la endosimbiosis seriada, afirma que las células eucariotas—propias de los animales, las plantas y algunos hongos—deben su origen a la incorporación sucesiva de células procariotas— es decir, de las bacterias—, quienes evolucionaron hasta formar parte de los orgánulos celulares. Por otro lado, la teoría de la simbiogénesis indica que el proceso sucesivo de la endosimbiosis seriada conllevará la transferencia del material genético entre los organismos partícipes, por lo que se formaría un nuevo organismo constituido por los simbiontes que lo crearon.

Ilustración de la teoría de la endosimbiosis seriada

AUNQUE ESO NO ES TODO, PUES LYNN MARGULIS REALIZÓ DIVERSAS APORTACIONES LA CIENCIA, ESPECIALMENTE A LA BIOLOGÍA Y AL EVOLUCIONISMO.

Además de formular y desarrollar la teoría de la endosimbiosis seriada y la teoría de la simbiogénesis—así como colaborar con el científico K.V. Schwartz en la clasificación de las especies en cinco reinos—, Lynn Margulis apoyó la hipótesis de Gaia del químico James E. Lovelock. Esta hipótesis trata sobre la idea de que la biosfera autorregula las condiciones del planeta para hacer sus condiciones algo más hospitalarias para la vida.

LYNN MARGULIS, LA ETERNA BIÓLOGA.

Lynn Margulis llegó al final de sus días estudiando un tipo de bacterias, las espiroquetas, y su probable papel en procesos simbiogenéticos. La bióloga falleció mientras investigaba sobre esto en su laboratorio, en 2011.

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